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Understanding Keywords And Keyword Intent

SEO Agency in Hyderabad visit Vivid Digital

Before we go any further, let’s recap some key terms:

1. Keywords are words and phrases that describe what your content is about and what people are searching for

2. Keyword research is about finding those terms so you can use them properly in content optimization and SEO in general.

Why Do Keyword Research?

Keyword research can:

1. Help you identify topics your target audience is looking for

2. Understand what people really want when they enter particular search terms

3. Show you the terms competitors are targeting so you can beat the competition

4. Help you streamline and target all marketing activities

We’ll talk more about how to use the keywords you find in a later section, but for now we’ll focus on the research process itself.

Before we do, let’s look at some different ways of thinking about keywords.

As we’ve said, it’s useful to think about what searchers intend to find when they enter a particular word or phrase. That’s called keyword intent, which is like the search intent mentioned earlier. For Digital Marketing Services Check Vivid Digital  

Understanding Keyword Intent

There are four ways to categorize search intent:

1. Navigational –

when trying to find a particular site

2. Informational –

when searching for the answer to a question

3. Investigational –

pre-purchase searches

4. Transactional –

when searchers actually want to buy

Ideally, you’ll optimize your content for all those types of searches. Learn more about content optimization for SEO here.

Types Of Keywords

Here’s another way to think about keywords. You can describe them as head, body and long tail keywords:

1. Head keywords are generally no more than 1 or 2 words, with a high search volume.

2. Body keywords are usually 2 to 3 word phrases with a medium search volume.

3. Long tail keywords are phrases of four or more words with a low search volume. Most web traffic comes from long tail keywords.

Other ways to describe these keyword types include head, modifier and tail keywords or short, medium and long tail keywords.Google also has its own way of segmenting search queries, as Moz explains:

Their search evaluation quality guidelines list four types of searches:

1. Know (finding information) or Know Simple (finding specific answers)

2. Do (performing an action), including Device Action (like installing a mobile app after a search)

3. Website (finding and visiting a site)

4. Visit-in-Person (taking physical action based on search results, like going to a restaurant)

LSI Keywords

Two more terms people use for keywords are LSI keywords or semantic keywords. LSI stands for latent semantic indexing, which is a kind of smart word association search engines use to figure out what to show searchers. This can help search engines decide whether to show results for the movie or the ship when a searcher looks for information on “Titanic”.

As you’ll see below, you can see LSI keywords in action in any autocomplete search.

We’ll explain more about how to find LSI keywords in the next section. And you can see the section on where to use keywords for more information on integrating these keywords into your SEO content strategy.Whichever way you choose to categorize keywords, one of the most important steps in SEO is doing keyword research. We’ll look at that next.

How To Get Started With Keyword Research

A great starting point for doing keyword research simply involves your brain. Always begin by brainstorming and thinking about the kind of information your visitors will need from you.Keep track of the keywords you think of in a list or spreadsheet, and keep this handy as you go through the keyword research process.

There are lots of ways to find keywords for SEO. One of the simplest is to use the autocomplete function in Google. Start to type, and the suggested phrases are keywords you could consider.You can also complete a search and look at the terms that appear in the “searches related to” box at the bottom of SERPs.

Both those methods will give you some of the LSI or semantic keywords we mentioned earlier. But if you want to find even more of them, you can use LSIGraph to discover long tail terms related to your main keywords. Just type in your keywords, and you’ll usually get a pretty long list. For SEO Companies in London visit here

You can also use dedicated keyword research tools to find keywords to use for SEO. Three of our favorite tools for this are:

1. SEMrush, which we mentioned earlier

2. Ahrefs

3. Google AdWords Keyword Planner

Here’s a brief introduction to each tool.

How To Do Keyword Research With SEMrush

SEMrush makes some functionality available without logging in, but to get the best from it, you should create an account.When you’re logged in, go to SEO Toolkit » Keyword Research » Keyword Overview. Type in your keyword phrase, then press Search.You’ll get in-depth data on search volume and trends, and on the top pages ranking for those keywords.

Scroll down to see the Related Keywords report, which will give you ideas for new keywords you can use for content optimization.You can click on any keyword in the table to get a full report for that keyword.Add suitable keywords to your list of target keywords, or click the Export button to export them into a spreadsheet.Once you’ve found your keywords, use another SEMrush tool, the SEO Content Template, which is part of their Content Marketing Toolkit, to work out the best way to optimize your content.

Type in your keywords. SEMrush will analyze the top 10 results and suggest terms to include in your content to improve your ranking.Want an alternative to SEMrush? You can also use Google Analytics to find SEO keywords for content optimization.

How To Do Keyword Research With Ahrefs

Like SEMrush, Ahrefs includes a lot of tools, and has data on trillions of web links.

With Ahrefs, a good starting point for keyword research for SEO is the Keywords Explorer tool. Type in your terms, choose your country, and search, and you’ll get an assessment of important related keywords and how difficult it will be to rank for those terms, known as “keyword difficulty”.

Ahrefs also includes a keyword ideas section that helps you identify related content terms, as well as the parent topic for your search term.To get the most of this rich tool, make a note of new keywords you want to create content for, and keywords that can help you to optimize existing content.

How To Use Google AdWords Keyword Planner

The Google Adwords Keyword Planner is meant to help with pay per click (PPC) advertising, but it also turns out to be a pretty decent keyword research tool for other content, too.

To use this, log in to your AdWords account and click on the three-dot menu. Choose Planning » Keyword Planner.Next, go to Find new keywords and search volume data. Enter a couple of keyword phrases in the Product field.Use the onscreen filters to tweak your search.

For example, we’re going to look for keywords that have low competition, so we have a better chance of ranking. Save, then click Get Ideas.You’ll see the results in a table, which you can export to look at later.It’s also worth looking Ad group ideas, which is another tab on the results page. This gives you some broad topics to consider for content.

Again, make a note of any you might want to add to your target keywords. Learn more about using the keyword planner for SEO.

How To Find Existing Keywords With Google Analytics

Another option for keyword research is to use Google Analytics to find the keywords people are already using to find your site.

To get the most data, link your Google Search Console account to your Analytics account. Then go to Acquisition » Search Console » Queries in your Analytics account. You’ll see a table with the keywords that bring traffic to your site.Other ideas for finding keywords include:

1. Seeing what people ask in social media updates or blog comments

2. Social media hashtags

3. Book categories on Amazon

And you can also include local search variants where relevant. We’ll talk more about local search later in this guide.

 

 

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What is The Process To Transitioning From H-1B Visa To Green Card

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Foreign nationals are able to request an extension of their H-1B status in one-year increments if their Labor Certification or I-140 was filed a year (365 days) prior to the beginning of their exemption from the normal 6-year limit (this takes into account any recaptured time abroad).

The exception is if you have an approved I-140 and your priority date is not current (or if your LCA has been pending for a year). In those circumstances, you will have unlimited extensions until you can complete your green card application process. For H1B Visa Process Visit here

It’s crucial for the foreign worker to maintain lawful immigration status while in the green card process or making the change from H-1B to Green Card (EB-2/EB-3). In order to do so, you must submit an I-485 petition to USCIS–this generally occurs after the USCIS has already approved your employer’s I-140. In some instances, concurrent filing may be selected which permits both the I-485 and I-140 petition to be submitted at the same time.

Here are the steps for transitioning from H-1B to green card status:

A. You must first find an employer who is willing to sponsor you for your green card by offering you a position that qualifies under an employment-based green card category. This can be either your H-1B visa employer or a different employer.

B. Then, your employer must obtain a PERM Labor Certification. This means that the prevailing wage will need to be determined and eventually paid as your wage, an extensive recruitment process must take place for the position you will fill to ensure that no U.S. workers are available, and an ETA 9089 form must be filed.

C. Once the PERM has been approved, your employer must then file an I-140 Immigration Petition for Alien Worker.

D. As soon as the USCIS receives your petition, that date is your priority date. You will need to wait until your priority date becomes current before moving on to the final step.

E. Once you have a current priority date, you can apply for an adjustment of status by submitting the I-485 form with the USCIS. If it is approved, then you will receive your green card.

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5 Benefits To Consider An Affordable Business Phone Number For Your Business

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A business phone number not only separates your business and personal calls, but when it is powered by the right technology and backed by excellent features, it can take your business to the next level.You made the decision to work from home – whether to spend more time with the kids, avoid the rising costs of child care, or just get away from the long daily commute and office grind – but working from home does not mean you cannot separate personal-communications and work-communications.You have a mobile phone, so you may be wondering why you need a separate phone number for your home business. But, think about the next vendor or client you meet and their less-than-appealing personality. Do you really want to give that person your personal cell phone number? Rest assured, there are ways to use your cellphone without having to compromise your personal security.

Or that important new client is calling, but because the number is so similar to your sister’s, you… well… let’s just say you answer the call in a manner that you perhaps might not have, if you had only realized it was actually your next big client calling. Check for business phone number in Lanetalab

If you still think there’s no need for a separate business phone number, here are five reasons to reconsider.

1. Sound and Look More Professional

Whether you freelance or you are working on a startup, you rely on your home office to get your work done. If you want clients and vendors to take your business seriously – despite the fact you’re taking phone calls with a toddler hanging off your hip – a dedicated line can help.With a dedicated business number you are no longer giving out your personal cellphone number – and it gives the impression you don’t work alone, even if you do. Just make sure you opt for a phone service that offers you a dedicated line and the ability to forward those calls to your mobile phone – so you can easily keep in touch regardless of where you are.If your home business has a website – and let’s face it, in this day and age if you don’t have one, you really should – adding your business phone number to your contact page and header makes your business look that much more professional and legitimate.It hasn’t been proven and of course Google isn’t talking, but it has been talked about by top SEO consultants that having a “contact us” page with valid information – including address and phone number – helps with SEO efforts – especially if you want to rank in local searches. It would seem that Google gives more credibility and legitimacy to websites that are transparent with their contact information.

2. Utilize Call Forwarding to Route Calls to your Mobile Phone

With smart call forwarding, you do not have to share your cell phone number when you leave the office. Instead, business contacts dial your business line as usual, and it forwards that call to your mobile phone regardless of where you are. The caller never knows you are answering via your cell phone unless you tell them.With forwarding, you don’t miss important phone calls, but you still keep your privacy. Whether you are out on a sales visit, showing a new house or picking up the kids from school, business keeps going. No matter what, don’t forget to set business hours and an after hours greeting that then forwards calls to your business voicemail – that way you aren’t getting calls on your cell phone at 2:00 am.Here at Revuezzle we utilize call forwarding from Phone.com so that our team members are able use their cellphones to conduct business but never have to worry about giving out their personal cell phone numbers to business contacts. We can easily see if the call is a business call or a personal call and answer accordingly. When making calls from our cell phone, it’s just a matter of utilizing either the free phone.com iPhone or Android app and the person we are calling will never know we are calling from a cell phone unless we tell them – the number that shows up on their caller ID is our business number.

3. You Get Clearer Call Quality

Cellphones are notorious for poor call quality. If your home office tends to have a few dead zones or that 4G you paid for isn’t working, you risk giving clients an inadequate call experience. With a dedicated business phone number, and HD digital phones, you can offer your clients and vendors better call quality, limited disruptions, and a fixed network.Virtual Phone Services merchants offer HD quality digital business phones from top phone makers like Polycom, Panasonic, and Cisco, that come precon figured so that they are plug and use ready. Prices for these phones are very reasonable and in some cases like RingCentral, you can even rent them if buying a desktop phone doesn’t appeal to you. If you already have a phone you want to use, most merchants will allow you to use them with some setup on your end.

4. Offer Your Customers the Advantage of a Toll-Free or Vanity Number

Want customers from around the country to call you without paying long-distance rates? You can add even more professionalism and convenience by using a toll-free number.With most plans you can get a toll free number Free, or if you want to keep your existing local number an add a toll free number – the toll free number is less than $5 a month in most cases.If your business wants a competitive edge or you just want your company personality to shine through, look for a vendor that offers vanity numbers. Vanity numbers immediately identify your business to your customers – for example 1-800-FLOWERS.Have international clients? Some phone services also offer Global Virtual Numbers, that provide flat rate international numbers that provide your customers anywhere in the world with a local number to call at standard US local rates. Your clients will appreciate the savings.

5. It Really Doesn’t Cost That Much

Let’s be real. Professional phone services do not cost as much as you think – and if it’s really a big deal, remember it is a tax deduction. Most phone services for home-based businesses are extremely affordable, especially when you consider the free features, convenience of a dedicated line, and the fact you aren’t giving out your own personal number to new business contacts

 

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Features Which Are Enabled With Virtual Phone Number

Virtual phone number

You can get business number without any cost. It will be unique phone number and toll free for your all customers. Having business phone number is not a difficult task. There are number of website that gives you business phone number freely with number of best features.Number of websites or applications is available on the internet that provide you business number easily and without charges. One of best feature of business phone number provider is auto attendant or auto receptionist.In this case, you do not have to need for large number of employees for attending all calls. When you get virtual phone number for enhancing your business, you will also get many facilities including calling facility at cheap rates. For virtual phone number check Aspnetmenu

Everyone has their own mobile phones. Especially people have smart Phones that made their life much easier as everything is application based. If you want your business at peak point in the market, you must have to upload your business phone number on your webpage. People, who have their specific business, require a phone number for their business.Business phone number is only way that connects to you from your customer directly. Every customer will have any query related to your product and it is your responsibility to solve it immediately. That business phone number separates your personal calls and business calls. You will have idea which call has to attend at what time.

Other facilities which are enabled with virtual phone number are:

Customer greeting Auto receptionist Email request Facebook and twitter messages Call history Call recording Port existing number Multiple extensions No extra hardware needed Dynamic task management Voice mail and transcription Call queues High quality sound Free talk up to 10000 minutes Toll free Call forwarding to any device DND status Permanent reports Black list call routing Conference calls Visual call flow configuration Use your existing phone Mobile app for both android and iOS

The number that you have chosen for your business from virtual phone number service provider will be active within two minutes. You should have to place this phone number on your website so that customers will call you instantly and your calling feature will activated on your chosen number. This number will be toll free across all over world and very local with number in area code.The service provider will give you calling facility with effective rate. So, buy virtual phone number as soon as possible for your business and its growth. Your customer will satisfy with your quick response and interesting problem solving trick.It will be unique and toll free phone number for your all customers. Get your business phone number from website that gives you business phone number freely with number of best features.

 

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Native Mobile Apps are the New Flash

I’m not that old, but I remember a past when Flash was on top. Before HTML5 was the hottest tech buzzword. Before CSS gradients were even a distant dream. Before jQuery was a household name. Before Steve Jobs hung Flash to a cross.

Back then, the web simply wasn’t advanced enough to create the experiences users wanted. Developers turned to Flash to fill in the gaps, while the open web evolved and eventually surpassed Flash’s capabilities. Flash was a great stopgap measure. But it outlived its usefulness and has been reduced to niche status. For Web development company visit Vivid Designs

Today, we’re seeing the nearly exact same scenario with native apps on mobile devices.

The vast majority of web apps no longer need a native counterpart. Native mobile apps are a temporary solution. We’re just over 4 years into the Appstore era and this has already become apparent. Open web technologies are catching up to the point that the vast majority of web apps no longer need a native counterpart.

Don’t try to tell me native apps are faster or allude to them having a “better experience.” That simply is no longer true. Sencha proved this last year. For a more detailed look just how far mobile web capabilities have come, see Benjamin De Cock’s excellent “Building iOS Web Apps in 2013.”

Most of today’s mobile apps add little more than a homescreen button. As it stands now, there is little reason most mobile apps to exist. Content-based sites do not need downloadable apps. I’m talking about NYTimes, WSJ, Wikipedia, Buzzfeed, TMZ, etc. These native apps add literally nothing of value to their web-based user experience. Even many more complex apps do not need native functionality. Many RSS readers, GTD apps, eCommerce apps and search apps add little more than a homescreen button. For Web development services in Bangalore visit Vivid Designs

In many cases, native apps are a considerable step backward from their web counterparts. As Thomas Baekdal points out, mobile apps are stuck in 2004. Much of the functionality that has become standard on the web — automatic updates, social sharing, scrolling — has been completely stripped out and ignored.

Today, there are only two pieces of functionality that necessitate a native app: camera access and push notifications. And the web is quickly working on filling both of these gaps.

Once people begin realize this, native mobile apps will be the same as Flash. Useful for games, but not much else.

Edit: Many have said that I’ve “missed the point about app stores facilitating monetization and distribution.” Let me be clear: I am not saying the app store business model is going anywhere. Web app stores exist and are growing rapidly. Thanks for reading! I’m Jim Silverman, the product designer behind MeetMidway. You can follow me on Medium, Twitter, or Dribbble.

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The Two Perspectives on XML

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I have been working with XML since it was a glimmer in the eye of Jon Bosak. In fact, before XML was conceived, there was SGML; this evolution of SGML represented a streamlining for the web, but at its core there was not much functional difference; in fact the new invention was defined as a mere SGML subset. The key concept of semantic markup is central to the core value of SGML as well as its “streamlined for mass consumption” child.

The two main perspectives I have seen are Document-centric and Data-centric. SGML initially appeared in support of document-centric work: managing all the technical documents or contracts of IBM or Boeing, for example. Charles Goldfarb has maintained that “SGML literally makes the infrastructure of modern society possible” and I think he’s right — hmm, should we blame him for the lengths to which humans have gone to destroy the earth? If you are looking for Website development services check Vivid Designs

The gentle document-centric world The document-centric world is really a direct continuation of SGML. When XML came out as a standard in 1998, those of us working with document-centric use cases became giddy with excitement, anticipating that the standards being proposed at the time (notably XML itself, XLink, XML Schema, RDF, XSL and pre-cursors to SVG) would finally facilitate tools that made publishing work for organizations that weren’t quite as big as IBM or the Department of Defense. The vision of a semantic web and ubiquitous multi-channel publishing, seemed to be growing a foundation in theories gaining critical mass, with apparent support of software companies. It appeared these vendors might actually adopt the standards of the committees they were sitting on. “Throw away Xyvision!” I told my boss at Bertelsmann, “this XSL-FO will completely revolutionize database publishing!”

We were sorely disappointed over the next five years. In the years before 1998 W3C standards seemed magical; concepts from the standards were implemented relatively quickly, without perfection but with steady progress: browser updates would reflect CSS and HTML advances; even Microsoft was shamed into some level of compliance. But the monopolistic tendencies of those on the standards committees, coupled with the academic approach of some of the standards committees, managed to make it less and less likely that a given standard would find a functional implementation.

Data-centric newbies crash the party And there was that other perspective — the data-centric side of things. For many reasons, XML was at the right place at the right time in terms of data management and information exchange. In fact, the very year that it became a standard, it also became the dominant way that machines (servers) talked to each other around the world. Highly convenient for exchanging info, as firewalls would tend to block anything but text over http, while the semantic markup would allow any sort of specification for data structures, and validation tools would ensure no info was lost. If you are looking for Best web design company in Bangalore check Vivid Designs

In 1998, when you asked a programming candidate “what do you know about XML?” only the document-centric people would know anything. By 2000, everyone doing any serious programming “knew” about the acronym. Trouble was, they typically knew about it only in the much easier-to-use, barely-relevant-to-publishing, sense.

And the standards now had to accommodate two crowds. The work of the W3C XML Schema Working Group, in particular, showed the disconnect. Should a schema be easily human readable? What was the primary purpose of Schema? Goals were not shared by the document- and data-centric sides, and data-centric won out, as they have tended to dominate the standards space around structure ever since that time. RELAX NG came about as an alternative, and if you contrast RELAX NG with W3C Schema, you will see the contrast between the power of a few brilliant individuals aligned in purity of purpose and the impotence of a committee with questionable motives and conflicting goals. Concurrent with a decline in the altruism of committee participants was the huge advance of data-centric XML and the disproportionate representation of that perspective.

XML tooling solves mainly the trivial data-centric challenges Ten years later, we find in the document-centric world that toolsets related to XML in a data sense — parsing, transforming, exchanging info — have made great leaps forward, but we are in many ways still stuck in the 1990s in terms of core authoring and publishing technologies. It is telling that descendants of the three great SGML authoring tools as of 1995 — FrameMaker+SGML, Arbortext Epic, and SoftQuad’s Author/Editor, are, lo and behold, the leading three XML authoring tools in 2009.

There have been some slow-paced advances in document-centric XML standards and tool chains as well, especially the single bright light out there for us, Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) which came out of IBM like XML itself. Yet standards for rendition, XSL-FO and SVG especially, have not advanced along with core proprietary rendition technologies such as InDesign, Flash, or Silverlight, though all of these enjoy nicely copied underpinnings pillaged from the standards. More important, nothing has stepped in to replace the three core authoring tools: the “XML support” of Microsoft Word and Adobe InDesign, for example, do not approach the capabilities of a true structured authoring application. There are a proliferation of XML “editors” but most of the new ones are appropriate for editing a WSDL file or a SOAP message (data-centric forms of XML), not a full-fledged document.

Meanwhile, on the data-centric front, XML has simply permeated every aspect of computing. There are XML data types in database systems, XML features in most programming languages, XML configuration files at the heart of most applications, and XML-based Web Services available in countless flavors. With the advent of JSON at the turn of the 21st century, the torch was passed on to an even more streamlined and “web-convenient” approach for managing semantic content, and while JSON is finding its way into ever-richer content, it is used first and foremost in a data-centric way.

Document-centric XML is simply a deep challenge that will take more time (and probably more of a commercial incentive) to tackle. For the time being, structured authoring managed the XML way is still implemented mainly by very large organizations: such an approach has “trickled down” from organizations the size of IBM to organizations the size of Adobe (which does, in fact, use DITA now), but there are not tool chains yet available that will bring it down much further. The consequences of the failure of the W3C XML Schema Working Group to provide a functional specification supporting document-centric XML can hardly be underestimated.

As long as content is not easily authored in a semantically rich, structured fashion, the vision of the semantic web will remain an illusion. Should document-centric XML get more attention from standards bodies and software vendors, human communications might become far more efficient and effective. Yet the challenges are substantial, the short-term gain not so obvious, it appears that semantic depth will not commonly be available in such a controlled and intentional fashion, but instead will be deduced after the fact through analysis of “unstructured” and pseudo-structured content.

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Web Developer Monthly 💻🚀 — July 2018

Being a web developer is a fantastic career option. You have many job opportunities, you can work around the world, and you get to solve hard problems. One thing that is hard, however, is staying up to date with the constantly evolving ecosystem. You want to be a top performing web developer, coder, programer, software developer, but you don’t have time to select from hundreds of articles, videos and podcasts each day.

This monthly newsletter is going to be focused on keeping up to date with the industry, keeping your skills sharp, without wasting your valuable time. I will be sharing the most important articles, podcasts and videos of the month. Think Tim Ferriss and the Pareto Principle (80/20 rule) meeting the Software Development world. What’s the 20% that will get you 80% of the results? For web design company visit Vivid Designs

Welcome to the first issue. If you want to be notified of the next issue with industry news and tips, subscribe below:

This month as a web developer… 1. HTTPS + Google Google Chrome will officially no longer be nice if you don’t use HTTPS on your website: https://twitter.com/ChromiumDev/status/1021806746283651072

So you better learn what HTTPS is and start using it with something like Let’s Encrypt.

2. Developer Roadmaps More and more developer roadmaps are being created. Here are some good ones that show you what you need to learn for a specific career in 2018: – Front End Developer – Back End Developer – DevOps – React Developer

3. ES2018 + ES2019 Features If you haven’t taken a look already, get ready for ES2018 features, and some of the features that may be coming in ES2019. Dr. Axel Rauschmayer gives you a great writeup here: http://exploringjs.com/es2018-es2019/

4. Modern Architecture Big picture vision is important to get an idea of the current architecture landscape. This article is one of the best on the subject of how some big companies are handling their software architecture: https://engineering.videoblocks.com/web-architecture-101-a3224e126947

5. NPM Security Issue On July 12, 2018, the popular package manager, NPM, had a bit of a security issue… https://blog.npmjs.org/post/175824896885/incident-report-npm-inc-operations-incident-of, and this is one of the ways they are solving this: https://blog.npmjs.org/post/175861857230/two-factor-authentication-protection-for-packages

6. jQuery 💔Github Github no longer uses jQuery on their front end. Why? Well because they can do without it: https://twitter.com/mislav/status/1022058279000842240. Yes, I know the broken heart in the title is a little bit dramatic…

Best Article of the Month My favourite article this month… ok this is not from July but it’s the first issue (give me a break), so I’m picking one from a few months back because it is so good. It is a must read for all developers: https://medium.freecodecamp.org/how-to-think-like-a-programmer-lessons-in-problem-solving-d1d8bf1de7d2

Code Trick of the Month

Remove all node_module folders recursively to clean up your computer: https://coderwall.com/p/guqrca/remove-all-node_module-folders-recursively. For website design company in New delhi visit Vivid Designs

Thank you for reading this far. If you enjoyed this post, please share, comment, and press/hold that 👏 a few times (up to 50 times). . . I will keep doing these if there is enough interest!

Follow me on Twitter and Subscribe to the newsletter above. Format may change as I get more feedback. By the way, my full time job is to teach people to code in the most efficient way possible. You can see my two courses below:

1. The Complete Web Developer in 2018

2. Complete Junior to Senior Web Developer Roadmap

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How to write a good software design doc

As a software engineer, I spend a lot of time reading and writing design documents. After having gone through hundreds of these docs, I’ve seen first hand a strong correlation between good design docs and the ultimate success of the project.

This article is my attempt at describing what makes a design document great.

The article is split into 4 sections:

Why write a design document What to include in a design document How to write it The process around it Why write a design document? A design doc — also known as a technical spec — is a description of how you plan to solve a problem.

There are lots of writings already on why it’s important to write a design doc before diving into coding. So all I’ll say here is:

A design doc is the most useful tool for making sure the right work gets done.

The main goal of a design doc is to make you more effective by forcing you to think through the design and gather feedback from others. People often think the point of a design doc is to to teach others about some system or serve as documentation later on. While those can be beneficial side effects, they are not the goal in and of themselves.

As a general rule of thumb, if you are working on a project that might take 1 engineer-month or more, you should write a design doc. But don’t stop there — a lot of smaller projects could benefit from a mini design doc too.

Great! If you are still reading, you believe in the importance of design docs. However, different engineering teams, and even engineers within the same team, often write design docs very differently. So let’s talk about the content, style, and process of a good design doc.

What to include in a design doc? A design doc describes the solution to a problem. Since the nature of each problem is different, naturally you’d want to structure your design doc differently.

To start, the following is a list of sections that you should at least consider including in your next design doc:

Title and People The title of your design doc, the author(s) (should be the same as the list of people planning to work on this project), the reviewer(s) of the doc (we’ll talk more about that in the Process section below), and the date this document was last updated. If you are looking for website design for your company check Vivid Designs 

Overview A high level summary that every engineer at the company should understand and use to decide if it’s useful for them to read the rest of the doc. It should be 3 paragraphs max.

Context A description of the problem at hand, why this project is necessary, what people need to know to assess this project, and how it fits into the technical strategy, product strategy, or the team’s quarterly goals.

Goals and Non-Goals The Goals section should:

describe the user-driven impact of your project — where your user might be another engineering team or even another technical system specify how to measure success using metrics — bonus points if you can link to a dashboard that tracks those metrics Non-Goals are equally important to describe which problems you won’t be fixing so everyone is on the same page.

Milestones A list of measurable checkpoints, so your PM and your manager’s manager can skim it and know roughly when different parts of the project will be done. I encourage you to break the project down into major user-facing milestones if the project is more than 1 month long.

Use calendar dates so you take into account unrelated delays, vacations, meetings, and so on. It should look something like this:

Start Date: June 7, 2018 Milestone 1 — New system MVP running in dark-mode: June 28, 2018 Milestone 2 – Retire old system: July 4th, 2018 End Date: Add feature X, Y, Z to new system: July 14th, 2018

Add an [Update] subsection here if the ETA of some of these milestone changes, so the stakeholders can easily see the most up-to-date estimates.

Current Solution In addition to describing the current implementation, you should also walk through a high level example flow to illustrate how users interact with this system and/or how data flow through it.

A user story is a great way to frame this. Keep in mind that your system might have different types of users with different use cases.

Proposed Solution Some people call this the Technical Architecture section. Again, try to walk through a user story to concretize this. Feel free to include many sub-sections and diagrams.

Provide a big picture first, then fill in lots of details. Aim for a world where you can write this, then take a vacation on some deserted island, and another engineer on the team can just read it and implement the solution as you described.

Alternative Solutions What else did you consider when coming up with the solution above? What are the pros and cons of the alternatives? Have you considered buying a 3rd-party solution — or using an open source one — that solves this problem as opposed to building your own?

Monitoring and Alerting I like including this section, because people often treat this as an afterthought or skip it all together, and it almost always comes back to bite them later when things break and they have no idea how or why.

Cross-Team Impact How will this increase on call and dev-ops burden? How much money will it cost? Does it cause any latency regression to the system? Does it expose any security vulnerabilities? What are some negative consequences and side effects? How might the support team communicate this to the customers?

Discussion Any open issues that you aren’t sure about, contentious decisions that you’d like readers to weigh in on, suggested future work, and so on.

Detailed Scoping and Timeline This section is mostly going to be read only by the engineers working on this project, their tech leads, and their managers. Hence this section is at the end of the doc.

Essentially, this is the breakdown of how and when you plan on executing each part of the project. There’s a lot that goes into scoping accurately, so you can read this post to learn more about scoping.

I tend to also treat this section of the design doc as an ongoing project task tracker, so I update this whenever my scoping estimate changes. But that’s more of a personal preference.

How to write it Now that we’ve talked about what goes into a good design doc, let’s talk about the style of writing. I promise this is different than your high school English class.

Write as simply as possible Don’t try to write like the academic papers you’ve read. They are written to impress journal reviewers. Your doc is written to describe your solution and get feedback from your teammates. You can achieve clarity by using:

Simple words Short sentences Bulleted lists and/or numbered lists Concrete examples, like “User Alice connects her bank account, then …” Add lots of charts and diagrams Charts can often be useful to compare several potential options, and diagrams are generally easier to parse than text. I’ve had good luck with Google Drawing for creating diagrams. If you are looking for website development in Mumbai for your company visit Vivid Designs

Pro Tip: remember to add a link to the editable version of the diagram under the screenshot, so you can easily update it later when things inevitably change.

Include numbers The scale of the problem often determines the solution. To help reviewers get a sense of the state of the world, include real numbers like # of DB rows, # of user errors, latency — and how these scale with usage (remember your Big-O notations?).

Try to be funny A spec is not an academic paper. Also, people like reading funny things, so this is a good way to keep the reader engaged. Don’t overdo this to the point of taking away from the core idea though.

If you, like me, have trouble being funny, Joel Spolsky (obviously known for his comedic talents…) has this tip:

One of the easiest ways to be funny is to be specific when it’s not called for [… Example:] Instead of saying “special interests,” say “left-handed avacado farmers.” Do the Skeptic Test Before sending your design doc to others to review, take a pass at it pretending to be the reviewer. What questions and doubts might you have about this design? Then address them preemptively.

Do the Vacation Test If you go on a long vacation now with no internet access, can someone on your team read the doc and implement it as you intended?

The main goal of a design doc is not knowledge sharing, but this is a good way to evaluate for clarity so that others can actually give you useful feedback.

Process Ah yes, the dreaded P-word. Design docs help you get feedback before you waste a bunch of time implementing the wrong solution or the solution to the wrong problem. There’s a lot of art to getting good feedback, but that’s for a later article. For now, let’s just talk specifically about how to write the design doc and get feedback for it.

First of all, everyone working on the project should be a part of the design process. It’s okay if the tech lead ends up driving a lot of the decisions, but everyone should be involved in the discussion and buy into the design. So the “you” throughout this article is a really plural “you” that includes all the people on the project.

Secondly, the design process doesn’t mean you staring at the whiteboard theorizing ideas. Feel free to get your hands dirty and prototype potential solutions. This is not the same as starting to write production code for the project before writing a design doc. Don’t do that. But you absolutely should feel free to write some hacky throwaway code to validate an idea. To ensure that you only write exploratory code, make it a rule that none of this prototype code gets merged to master.

After that, as you start to have some idea of how to go about your project, do the following:

Ask an experienced engineer or tech lead on your team to be your reviewer. Ideally this would be someone who’s well respected and/or familiar with the edge cases of the problem. Bribe them with boba if necessary. Go into a conference room with a whiteboard. Describe the problem that you are tackling to this engineer (this is a very important step, don’t skip it!). Then explain the implementation you have in mind, and convince them this is the right thing to build. Doing all of this before you even start writing your design doc lets you get feedback as soon as possible, before you invest more time and get attached to any specific solution. Often, even if the implementation stays the same, your reviewer is able to point out corner cases you need to cover, indicate any potential areas of confusion, and anticipate difficulties you might encounter later on.

Then, after you’ve written a rough draft of your design doc, get the same reviewer to read through it again, and rubber stamp it by adding their name as the reviewer in the Title and People section of the design doc. This creates additional incentive and accountability for the reviewer.

On that note, consider adding specialized reviewers (such as SREs and security engineers) for specific aspects of the design.

Once you and the reviewer(s) sign off, feel free to send the design doc to your team for additional feedback and knowledge sharing. I suggest time-bounding this feedback gathering process to about 1 week to avoid extended delays. Commit to addressing all questions and comments people leave within that week. Leaving comments hanging = bad karma.

Lastly, if there’s a lot of contention between you, your reviewer, and other engineers reading the doc, I strongly recommend consolidating all the points of contention in the Discussion section of your doc. Then, set up a meeting with the different parties to talk about these disagreements in person.

Whenever a discussion thread is more than 5 comments long, moving to an in-person discussion tends to be far more efficient. Keep in mind that you are still responsible for making the final call, even if everyone can’t come to a consensus.

In talking to Shrey Banga recently about this, I learned that Quip has a similar process, except in addition to having an experienced engineer or tech lead on your team as a reviewer, they also suggest having an engineer on a different team review the doc. I haven’t tried this, but I can certainly see this helping get feedback from people with different perspectives and improve the general readability of the doc.

Once you’ve done all the above, time to get going on the implementation! For extra brownie points, treat this design doc as a living document as you implement the design. Update the doc every time you learn something that leads to you making changes to the original solution or update your scoping. You’ll thank me later when you don’t have to explain things over and over again to all your stakeholders.

Finally, let’s get really meta for a second: How do we evaluate the success of a design doc?

My coworker Kent Rakip has a good answer to this: A design doc is successful if the right ROI of work is done. That means a successful design doc might actually lead to an outcome like this:

You spend 5 days writing the design doc, this forces you to think through different parts of the technical architecture You get feedback from reviewers that X is the riskiest part of the proposed architecture You decide to implement X first to de-risk the project 3 days later, you figure out that X is either not possible, or far more difficult than you originally intended You decide to stop working on this project and prioritize other work instead At the beginning of this article, we said the goal of a design doc is to make sure the right work gets done. In the example above, thanks to this design doc, instead of wasting potentially months only to abort this project later, you’ve only spent 8 days. Seems like a pretty successful outcome to me.

Please leave a comment below if you have any questions or feedback! I’d also love to hear about how you do design docs differently in your team.

Giving credit where credit is due, I learned a lot of the above by working alongside some incredible engineers at Plaid (we are hiring! Come design and build some sweet technical systems with us) and Quora.

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Maruti Suzuki Dzire Engine & Gearbox

OVERVIEW ;.

The New Maruti DZire 2017 is launched. Yes you read that right, Maruti Dzire and not Swift Dzire. The Swift moniker has been done away with and the Dzire is now positioned as an all new model. The Dzire has been a runaway success for the company since the time it was launched. From a proper sedan, it later transformed into a compact sedan. This time, it comes in an all new avatar.Check Price of Dzire

This is an all new sedan and is built on the Heartect platform of Suzuki. It continues to be a compact sedan but now has new dimensions. it is bigger than before and has changes in height, width and length. What is visually evident is the new width. The car also is lower in height, which makes it looks more proportionate. The new Maruti Dzire looks much wider than before. Even the weight of the car has reduced due to the new chassis and the car is about 100 kilograms lighter. The New Dzire also sees the introduction of a new variant in its lineup, which is the ZDi +

The same engines power the 2017 Maruti Dzire. These are the 1.2-litre K-Series petrol and the 1.3-litre DDiS diesel engines. The engine and power ratings remain the same, but the the car performs better as it is lighter. With engines are offered with a five-speed manual transmission and both engines also get AMT options. So there is a choice for automatic in both petrol and diesel and this is a big advantage over competition.

EXTERIORS ;

The new Maruti Suzuki Dzire is based on the next generation Swift that should come to India by the end of FY 2017-18. However it’s only the front that it borrows from the hatchback, and of course, the platform as well. Unlike the previous generations, the new Dzire is a completely different car from the new Swift A-pillar onwards. Also Read – Maruti Suzuki Dzire vs Baleno vs Brezza. Request test drive for Dzire in Cazprice

The countenance is purposeful with muscle at the right places on the bonnet and the wheel arches. The hexagonal front grille is also short and wide, and it all adds to make the Dzire look broad. Chrome work is generous on the front grille, below the fog lamp housing and even in the headlamp unit, but it doesn’t look overdone. In fact, the quality of chrome is so good that it would match the finish on cars twice its price. Unfortunately, Maruti Suzuki offers LED projectors and DRLs on the top ZXi+ variant only, so the lower variants get reflector headlamp units that tone down the aggression a bit

The muscle on the bonnet is carried on to the front fender and a sharp shoulder line weaves through from the front to the rear. A pinched character line at the lower end breaks the monotony of what would otherwise be a plain design. The A-pillar onwards, the Dzire looks more sedan-like in profile with the roof flowing from the A-pillar to the C-pillar smoothly. The proportions are better too, as Maruti Suzuki has increased the width by 40mm and reduced the roof height by 40mm. However, the ground clearance is reduced only by by 7mm, down to 163mm now. So, while the Dzire will tackle the speed breakers of different sizes with ease, sharp gradient changes may require you to double check the front overhang before committing to them. Also Read – Maruti Dzire Vs Sub-Four Metre Rivals – Spec

Unlike the front design that imparts the Dzire a big-car appeal, the rear is usual business as far as compact car designs go. Nonetheless, it is a step forward as the boot is now better integrated into the C-pillar and doesn’t look like an afterthought. It’s stubby with the bumper hardly extending any mass beyond the boot lid. The arc-shaped lip is Ciaz-like now. Importantly, the Dzire now not only looks proportionate but is also pleasing to the eye

INTERIORS ;

Coming to the interiors, here’s where a lot of major revisions lie. The dashboard gets an all-new design and even though some elements are derived from the new Swift, Maruti has again made a lot of changes to things like the instrument cluster, AC vents, steering wheel, inlays on the dashboard, etc. There is a dual tone black and beige colour theme and the top variants come with wood inserts on the dashboard and steering wheel. The wooden inserts are provided with an intent of making the car feel premium but honestly, it could have been done in a better way and the quality also feels a bit inferior. However, the overall fit and finish of the insides feel much better than the second generation Dzire

Due to the rear doors being wider, ingress and egress have become easier. The seats are large and comfortable and the cushioning is also soft but under thigh support felt a bit lacking. The driver’s seat gets height adjustment while the steering gets tilt adjustment and hence you can find yourself a good driving position with decent visibility all around. Space at the rear is decent but at the front, the footwell eats into space slightly. The roofline limits the headroom at the rear a bit. The boot is nicely shaped and has good cargo carrying capacity, it is larger by 60-litres now.

The third generation Maruti Dzire gets a good equipment list. You get automatic climate control and the cooling performance from the AC is very good and the rear AC vents are a big plus. The ORVMs are electrically adjustable and folding. The audio system is the same one that is also offered on the Baleno. The 7-inch touchscreen has a good response and it gets Apple CarPlay and Android Auto too. Connectivity is seamless and the sound quality from the speakers is very good. Apart from that, the Dzire also gets keyless go with push button start and unlock sensors on the door

PERFORMANCE ;

Underpinned by the HEARTECT platform, the Dzire is lighter than its predecessor by 85 kg for the petrol version and 105 kg for the diesel version. This makes a considerable difference to the performance and efficiency of the vehicle. Despite the usage of the same 1.2-litre petrol and 1.3-litre diesel engines, the lighter Dzire now feels a bit more zippier to drive. Fuel-efficiency has gone up by 6.8% to 28.4 kmpl, making it the country’s most fuel-efficient car. The petrol version’s figures too have improved by 5.5% to 22 kmpl. Power output for the petrol engine is 81 hp with 113 Nm of torque, while the diesel mill develops 73 hp and 190 Nm of torque. The extra torque of the diesel motor makes it more fun to drive and there is a hint of lag that disappears once the tacho needle swings past about 1,600 rpm. The petrol motor, on the other hand, becomes lively past 2,500 rpm but drivability in both engines is good and doesn’t call for frequent gear shifts.

Talking of gear shifts, the Dzire comes with a five-speed manual and a five-speed AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) or the AGS as the company calls it. The best part is that AMT is available with both petrol and diesel engines and is available in middle and top variants. The manual transmissions offer smooth shifts and the well-tuned ratios complement the engine’s easy-to-drive nature. The AMT on the Dzire turned out to be quite a surprise as it shifted quicker than expected. Even the diesel AMT shifts at a reasonably well speed and the petrol is a tad quicker with a kickdown response being good for both. One can also take control of the gears manually, in case a quicker shift is required in case of overtaking on highways. NVH (Noise, Vibration & Harshness) level is significantly lower in the new Dzire compared to the older model. This is a result of the new platform that improves NVH efficiency and the pendulum joints further help the cause. Overall, the Dzire offers good performance, easy drivability, class-leading fuel efficiency and the option of an automatic in both diesel and petrol versions, taking it a step ahead of the competition.

SAFETY ;

The 2017 Maruti Dzire now comes with dual front airbags, ABS and ISOFIX mounts on all variants which is a very positive move. The car is lighter than before since it is based on the new HEARTACT platform. Talking about service, Maruti Suzuki has the best sales and after-sales network in India and the Dzire can be serviced in any nook and corner of the country since the company has a service centre almost everywhere.

DRIVING DYNAMICS ;

Maruit Dzire has softened this car a bit and ride quality is noticeably better than the outgoing car. There are fewer body movements over bad sections of road and aren’t as jarring any more. It soaks up road imperfections in a very mature manner and feels nice and absorbent. The petrol’s steering is light and, with a tight 4.8m turning radius, it’s effortless to twirl around in the city. The return to centre is weak though, like many modern Marutis, and with all that lightness, it doesn’t feel as well connected to the road as before; there’s a bit of vagueness here. However, the diesel feels a bit heavier and more connected in compaBOTTOMLINE ;

BOTTOMLINE ;

Well, if you can spend that average of about Rs 50,000 on the automatic (AMT) or as Maruti Suzuki calls it, AGS – Auto Gear Shift, you should most certainly consider it. The good thing about the new Dzire is the fact that you can get the AMT option in the top of the line Z+ variant too which in turn means you can get a fully loaded car with the AMT option. The Ignis, which also has the AMT gearbox never offered that option. This means that you get the likes of the LED daytime running lights and LED headlamps along with the large touchscreen infotainment system while still enjoying the ease of the AMT gearbox. If I had to choose then, my pick would be the diesel engine with the AMT gearbox simply because of a combination of being a fun to drive car and yet offering phenomenal fuel economy.

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Hyundai Elite i20 Price & Specifications

OVERVIEW ;

Hyundai Elite i20 2017 will get some changes. There are some discounts on the Elite i20 2017. In Mumbai the discount is for INR 24,000, Bengaluru has INR 16,000 and New Delhi the discount is INR 35,000.The changes are majorly for variants. The lower variants gets more features, which makes the lower versions a better value for money. The lower trims like Magna and Sportz have additional features. What are the changes that other variants have? There is a discount of INR 25,000 on the Elite i20, on some variants. There are several changes that have been made on the Hyundai Elite i20 2017 as the lower variants get more bells and whistles. A new Asta Dual Tone variant has also been added. Read our detailed review and also know all about this premium hatchback. Check Ex Showroom Price of Elite i20

EXTERIORS ;

Hyundai believes the previous generation i20 had a youthful, sporty and hi-tech stance and now while retaining the same characteristics of the styling, they are promoting the Elite i20 with a bold, dynamic and powerful image. We agree with them because it looks powerful indeed and has mature design elements that grow on you with time. The front profile looks imposing with the hexagonal grille having a honeycomb mesh and chrome outlining. The wide swept back headlamps integrate reflectors on the top that act as faux daytime running lights because DRLs are not being offered with the new gen i20 as opposed to the outgoing model. The bonnet has strong creases that add to the visual appeal. There is a pause between the bonnet and bumper on the nose that houses the Hyundai badge neatly. At the lower end you’ll find trapezoidal fog lamps with sharp bumper lip.

The side profile reveals the sporty stance of the Elite i20, which appears forward leaning. The 16-inch ‘diamond cut’ alloys look premium and fill the wheel arches very well while the ORVMs have integrated turn indicators. There is a strong shoulder line that emerges from the headlights and continues upwards to the tail lights. The blackened B and C pillars gives the sense of a floating roof and we quite like it but it is a ‘love it or hate it’ styling cue. It’s integrated neatly to the body but the panel itself feels plasticky and boxy when you knock it. That said, the rear styling of the Elite i20 definitely grabs attention with its broad stance and big car feel. The three step detailing on the huge tail lamps looks upmarket and the bumper gets busy styling integrated with reflectors and one side reverse lamp. The rear parking camera is protruding in the middle and further down is the hatch opening button. The Hyundai logo integrating the button with a hidden camera would have made the tailgate look cleaner. The Elite i20 is 10 mm shorter and 24 mm wider with a 45 mm longer wheelbase. Find best offers on Elite i20

INTERIORS ;

While the cabin space is par-for-the-course, the upmarket ambience will be quite a deal maker. Premium hatchbacks today offer quality we’d expect in segments above and the Elite’s cabin is a perfect example.The dashboard is elegantly designed, with uniquely styled AC vents and a centre console with controls that are easy to navigate through. The lower portion of the dashboard is coloured black, while the upper half stretching all the way into the windshield is beige.We enjoyed the diversity of the atmosphere, and thought it fed off a trend that most car makers are following today here in India. The audio system is positioned at the top of the centre console, right below the central AC vents.Though it comes as a highlight, the central screen could have been bigger for improved ease of use on the move. The controls for the system are arranged around the display, and a large engine start/stop button is placed by the side of the console. The new edition has been updated with an advanced AVN(Audio Visual Navigation) system that comes along with a 7-inch touchscreen infotainment system.

Below is the climate control console which hosts a slender screen with blue illumination. At the lower end of the console, you have a small storage area where occupants can keep phones and other spare items. Also incorporated here are dual 12V power sockets, a USB and an AUX port, adding convenience to the passenger’s experience.The 3-spoke steering wheel is draped in leather, adding to the upmarket experience of the cabin.The instrument cluster comes with an analogue tachometer and a speedometer, and the illuminated dials make it easy to read in any condition.Door pockets are present in all of the doors, but we have to stress that they’re too shallow to hold anything substantial. The entire arrangement is ergonomically sorted and everything falls to hand quite easily. Armrests and headrests provide added comfort, and the lumbar support is excellent too. The seat upholstery bumps up the premium feel in the cabin, while the contrasting beige and black stitching is a visual treat. Added bling comes in the form of the metal highlights on the gear knob, parking brake and the inside door handles, showcasing the attention to detail.

PERFORMANCE ;

Now the engines. As has become a norm in this class of hatchbacks, there’s one diesel and one petrol engine on offer. Both engines have been carried over from the previous i20. So, the petrol is a 83PS, 1.2-litre, 4-cylinder petrol while the diesel is a 90PS, 1.4-litre unit. The petrol is mated to a 5-speed manual gearbox while the diesel gets a 6-speed manual. There is no automatic yet on offer.

We are driving the diesel here; the engine almost 70 per cent of Elite i20 buyers have opted for so far. And for good reason, because the first thing that strikes you is how good the NVH is on the new Elite i20 diesel. You can hear the diesel engine outside, but it isn’t an irritating or loud clatter. However, once seated inside the car, the engine feels both quiet and refined. It is also an easy revving engine. But if we had to nitpick, we’d say the turbo lag is a bit of a dampener. It’s only after 2,000rpm that the car really gets going. The 6-speed gearbox, however, doesn’t give you much to complain about. The gear shifts are precise, the throws aren’t very long and the clutch operation is light and progressive too.

DRIVING DYNAMICS ;

The ride quality is good for most urban and highway conditions. The MacPherson setup at the front with a torsion beam axle and coil springs at the rear are adequate dampers for good and bad roads. Large potholes can be a bit unsettling, resulting in sharp thuds but overall the ride quality is comfortable.On the handling front, I do feel that the new i20 is seriously underpowered for the kind of control it exhibits. It’s tightly controlled in corners and while there is some body roll, it’s not unsettling nor does it at any point make you feel unsafe. I did find the steering a bit elasticky and it’s not as impressive as in the Grand i10 but it’s light enough for urban commutes with enough weight for when you take it out of the city. The assistance fortunately is not excessive and like in the Verna or the previous i20, you do not need to be extra cautious when taking the steering wheel off centre.Compared to the diesel variant, the petrol i20?s steering setup feels lighter, thanks to the lesser weight of the petrol engine. But that also makes the steering feel more lifeless. The engine however, feels livelier than its diesel counterpart. Being a naturally aspirated mill, it has a more linear power delivery with no flat spots to complain about. The engine is rev happy and gets the car rolling from as low as 1,200 rpm. Needless to say, it is also quicker and more refined than its diesel sibling.

BRAKING AND SAFETY ;

Hyundai has incorporated a decent braking system in the hatch, which consists of disc brakes on the front and drum brakes on the rear. It is supported immensely well by the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), but that is limited to the top three variants. Earlier, Hyundai i20 used to be the only hatchback under Rs. 10 lakh that offered as many as half a dozen airbags and was impeccably safe. But, now the scenario has reversed as even the top-end trim has only 2 airbags. The base and mid variants don’t feature a single airbag, while the Sportz trim comprises of only driver’s airbag. The parking assist feature with reverse parking sensors and rear camera with ECM display comes handy during parking the hatch. There are front fog lamps to improve visibility in inclement weather conditions.But, again, both the aforesaid features are with Sportz and Asta trims. Additionally, the top-end trim also features seat belt pretensioners for the driver and front passenger, automatic headlamps, impact-sensing auto door unlock and clutch lock. On the security front, it has immobilizer, smart keyless entry, and central locking (door and tailgate) to endure any event of burglary or thievery. It can be propounded nonchalantly that the current gen Elite i20 stands nowhere close to its predecessor in terms of safety features. The company has disappointed thoroughly in the safety and security aspect.

VERDICT ;

If an engaging driving experience is all you seek from your hatchback, the i20 is not the car for you. It betters the old i20 in almost every way, but dynamics are still not its strongest suite. But if you are primarily looking for an all-rounder with lots of space, a premium cabin and lots of features, the i20 could just be your best bet. It’s got peppy enough engines that should prove to be sufficiently fuel efficient too. Overall refinement is also very impressive, so when you add all of it together you get a car that gets you your money’s worth, premium price notwithstanding. Hyundai’s proven service backing only helps to make the i20 a car that’s easy to recommend.