Gynaecomastia means a male having female like Breast. Gynaecomastia is enlargement of breast gland in males. Clinically, it is defined as the presence of a rubbery or firm mass extending concentrically from the nipples of men. Gynecomastia should be differentiated from pseudogynecomastia (lipomastia), which is characterized by fat deposition without glandular proliferation.
Almost all causes of Gynecomastia can be in one way or other traced back to excess production of the female hormone estrogen, however the reasons range from hormonal issues to diet issues.
The causes of gynecomastia are as follows :
There are many possible causes of gynecomastia, and these can be grouped into
A. Physiological (the body normal functioning) causes
B. Pharmacological (medication or drug-related) causes
C. Pathological (disease) causes
Physiological gynaecomastia is caused by the normal hormone changes that occur during different stages of life. These changes result in an increase in the ratio of normal oestrogen hormones to testosterone hormones, with oestrogen encouraging breast tissue growth.
During infancy male babies can develop physiological gynaecomastia due to the transfer of oestrogen from the mother. This transfer stops after birth, so the gynaecomastia is temporary.
During puberty the maturing testes produce more oestrogen than testosterone, which can result in gynaecomastia.Usually this type of gynaecomastia goes away spontaneously,but sometimes it can persist longer term.
During older age there is a gradual reduction in testosterone production, resulting in an increased oestrogen to testosterone ratio,which can encourage the growth of breast tissue. To know more details on Gynaecomastia check Inlnk
Pharmacological gynaecomastia is caused by medications or drugs that affect the ratio of oestrogen and testosterone through multiple different ways. Some of these medications include anabolic steroids, heart medications, or drugs of abuse such as marijuana or alcohol. While stopping the offending drug will usually result in the gynaecomastia going away.
Pathological gynaecomastia is caused by multiple different diseases or conditions that affect the ratio of oestrogen to testosterone. These conditions are quite rare but may include genetic problems, chronic diseases (especially kidney and liver disease), and tumours in the testis or adrenal gland.
Grade I: Minor enlargement, no skin excess
Grade II: Moderate enlargement, no skin excess
Grade III: Moderate enlargement, skin excess
Grade IV: Marked enlargement, skin excess
Medical treatment of gynecomastia
Medical treatment of gynecomastia is most effective when done within the first two years after the start of male breast enlargement.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators(SERMs) such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and clomifene may be beneficial in the treatment of gynecomastia but are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in gynecomastia. Tamoxifen may be used for painful gynecomastia in adults.
Subcutaneous mastectomy Liposuction-assisted mastectomy Laser-assisted liposuction Laser-lipolysis without liposuction.
Complications of mastectomy may include hematoma, surgical wound infection, breast asymmetry, changes in sensation in the breast, necrosis of the areola or nipple, seroma, noticeable or painful scars, and contour deformities.
There may be other serious problems if the operation is performed by incompetent doctors. So ensure to consult the best Gynecomastia surgery in Hyderabad at Personiks